ابن خلدون کا شمار بلاشبہ اسلام کے چند عظیم تاریخ دانوں، سیاسی مفکروں اور دانشوروں میں ہوتا ہے کہ جنہوں نے پولیٹیکل سائنس میں نئی جہتیں متعارف کروائیں۔ ابن خلدون 1332 میں پیدا ہوئے ۔ ابن خلدون وہ پہلے مفکر تھے کہ جنہوں نے تاریخ کو سائنس کے زائچے میں ڈھال کر دیکھنے کی اہمیت کو اجاگر کیا۔ انہوں نے تاریخ کو نہ صرف ایک اسکالر کی حیثیت سے پرکھا بلک ایک ماہر قانون دان کے طور پر ان گنت زاویوں سے قابل عمل نظریات پیش کیے۔ ابن خلدون کے چند عظیم کاموں میں سے ایک یہ ہے کہ انہوں نے تاریخ اور تاریخ میں ہونے والی تبدیلیوں کو سائنسی نظر سے دیکھا، پرکھا اور اس سے نتائج اخذ کئے اور ان نتائج کی بنیاد پر سوسائٹی کے مختلف پہلوں پر روشنی ڈالی اور سوسائٹی کے لیے جدید اور قابل عمل قوانین پیش کے۔
دوسرے فلسفیوں کے برعکس ابن خلدون نے نہ صرف تاریخ کا بغور مطالعہ کیا بلکہ اس کو مکمل حقائق کے ساتھ پیش کیا۔ انہوں نے تاریخ پر وسیع تحریریں لکھیں،اور مختلف سوسائٹیز کے عروج و زوال کی وجوہات پر روشنی ڈالی جس کی بنیاد پر انہوں نے اپنے نظریات کی عمارت تعمیر کی۔ گویا کہ ابن خلدون نے تاریخ کو ایک الگ اور انوکھے انداز سے دیکھا۔ ابن خلدون نے سیاست کو تاریخ کے دھارے میں ہونے والی مختلف تبدیلیوں اور حالات و واقعات کے تناظر میں پیش کیا اور اپنے نظریات کا پرچار کیا۔ ابن خلدون کے مطابق تمام سیاسی اداروں کی ہیئت اور ساخت کا دارومدار اس دور کے سیاسی، مذہبی، سماجی اور معاشی حالات پر ہوتا ہے اور سیاست کو زمانے سے الگ نہیں کیا جا سکتا۔ ابن خلدون وہ پہلے مسلم فلسفی تھے کہ جنہوں نے سیاسی اداروں، حکومت کی اقسام، اور دیگر اداروں کے اسٹرکچر میں کار فرما عوامل کو مفصل انداز میں بیان کیا اور اس پر عرق ریزی سے تحقیق کی۔
ابن خلدون کے مطابق ریاست انسانی زندگی کا ایک فطری نتیجہ ہے جس کو اجتماع اور اتحاد کی ضرورت ہے۔ ابن خلدون کہتے ہیں کہ “انسان فطری طور پر ایک شہری ہے”۔ اور انسان کی کھانے پینے، کپڑے پہننے اور گھر کی تمام ضروریات پوری کرنے کے لیے باہمی امداد کی اشد ضروری ہے۔ اس باہمی امداد کے بغیر انسانی معاشرے کا وجود ناممکن ہے اس کے علاوہ مذہب بھی ایک اہم پہلو ہے ۔ ابن خلدون نے سب سے پہلے سیاست اور معیشت کے ربط کو ظاہر کیا اور اس پر اپنے خیالات کا اظہار کیا۔ ابن خلدون نے مختلف معاشی پہلوں پر روشنی ڈالی اور اور انکی سیاسی اہمیت اور انکے ریاست پر اچھے اور برے اثرات بیان کئے۔
وہ پہلے ماہر اقتصادیات تھے کہ جنہوں نے پولیٹیکل اکانومی کے اصولوں کو سمجھا اور انکو انتہائی ماہرانہ طریقے سے آپس میں جوڑا۔ ان سے پہلے کسی مفکر نے سیاست اور معیشت پر اس قدر مفصل اور وسیع پیمانے پر نہ لکھا اور نہ ہی کوئی تھیوری پیش کی اور اس وقت مغرب اس تصور سے مکمل طور پر لاعلم تھا۔ انہوں نے تنخواہ اور الاؤنس، ٹیکس کا نظام، کمانے کے ذرائع، اور دیگر موضوعات پر تفصیل سے تحریر یں لکھیں۔ شائد ہی کسی اور فلسفی نے پولیٹیکل اکانومی پر اس قدر مکمل اور واضح خیالات کا اظہار کیا ہو۔
The book of unknown arcs of a sphere
“I have heard that Abu Bakr [Ibn Bajja] discovered a system in which no epicycles occur, but eccentric spheres are not excluded by him. I have not heard it from his pupils; and even if it be correct that he discovered such a system, he has not gained much by it, for eccentricity is likewise contrary to the principles laid down by Aristotle…. I have explained to you that these difficulties do not concern the astronomer, for he does not profess to tell us the existing properties of the spheres, but to suggest, whether correctly or not, a theory in which the motion of the stars and planets is uniform and circular, and in agreement with observation.”
“The Milky Way is the light of many stars which almost touch one another. Their light forms a “continuous image” (khayâl muttasil) on the surface of the body which is like a “tent” (takhawwum) under the fierily element and over the air which it covers. Avempace defines the continuous image as the result of refraction (in‛ikâs) and supports its explanation with an observation of a conjunction of two planets, Jupiter and Mars which took place in 500/1106-7. He watched the conjunction and “saw them having an elongate figure” although their figure is circular.”
“And this resistance which is between the plenum and the body which is moved in it, is that between which, and the potency of the void, Aristotle made the proportion in his fourth book; and what is believed to be his opinion, is not so. For the proportion of water to air in density is not as the proportion of the motion of the stone in water to its motion in air; but the proportion of the cohesive power of water to that of air is as the proportion of the retardation occurring to the moved body by reason of the medium in which it is moved, namely water, to the retardation occurring to it when it is moved in air.”
“For, if what some people have believed were true, then natural motion would be violent; therefore, if there were no resistance present, how could there be any motion? For it would necessarily be instantaneous. What then shall be said concerning the circular motion? There is no resistance there, because there is no cleavage of a medium involved; the place of the circle is always the same, so that it does not leave one place and enter another; it is therefore necessary that the circular motion should be instantaneous. Yet we observe in it the greatest slowness, as in the case of the fixed stars, and also the greatest speed, as in the case of the diurnal rotation. And this is caused only by the difference in perfection between the mover and the moved. When therefore the mover is of greater perfection, that which is moved by it will be more rapid; and when the mover is of lesser perfection, it will be nearer (in perfection) to that which is moved, and the motion will be slower.”
“Avempace, however, here raises a good question. For he says that it does not follow that the proportion of the motion of one and the same stone in water to its motion in air is as the proportion of the density of water to the density of air, except on the assumption that the motion of the stone takes time only because it is moved in a medium. And if this assumption were true, it would then be the case that no motion would require time except because of something resisting it for the medium seems to impede the thing moved. And if this were so, then the heavenly bodies, which encounter no resistant medium, would be moved instantaneously. And he says that the proportion of the rarity of water to the rarity of air is as the proportion of the retardation occurring to the moved body in water, to the retardation occurring to it in air.”
“And if this which he has said be conceded, then Aristotle’s demonstration will be false; because, if the proportion of the rarity of one medium to the rarity of the other is as the proportion of accidental retardation of the movement in one of them to the retardation occurring to it in the other, and is not as the proportion of the motion itself, it will not follow that what is moved in a void would be moved in an instant; because in that case there would be subtracted from the motion only the retardation affecting it by reason of the medium, and its natural motion would remain. And every motion involves time; therefore what is moved in a void is necessarily moved in time and with a divisible motion; and nothing impossible will follow. This, then, is Avempace’s question.”
Ibn Khaldūn Abū Zayd ‘Abdu r-Raḥmān bin Muḥammad bin Khaldūn Al-Ḥaḍrami, May 27, 1332 AD/732 AH – March 19, 1406 AD/808 AH) was an Arab Muslim historiographer and historian, regarded to be among the founding fathers of modern historiography,[n 1] sociology[n 1] and economics.[n 2]He is best known for his book The Muqaddimah (known as Prolegomena in Greek). The book influenced 17th-century Ottoman historians like Ḥajjī Khalīfa and Mustafa Naima who used the theories in the book to analyze the growth and decline of the Ottoman Empire. 19th-century European scholars also acknowledged the significance of the book and considered Ibn Khaldun as one of the greatest philosophers to come out of the Muslim world
Fleeing from Seville
Kitab al-iqtisad fi Islah Al-Anfus WA al-Ajsad, written in his youth.
Kitab al-aghdhiya, on foods and regimen of health, written in exile in Morocco.
Kitab al-taysir, his opus magnum and written at the request of his colleague Averroes.
The chief influence of Albucasis on the medical system of Europe was that his lucidity and method of presentation awakened a prepossession in favour of Arabic literature among the scholars of the West: the methods of Albucasis eclipsed those of Galen and maintained a dominant position in medical Europe for five hundred years, i.e long after it had passed its usefulness. He, however, helped to raise the status of surgery in Christian Europe; in his book on fractures and luxations, he states that ‘this part of surgery has passed into the hands of vulgar and uncultivated minds, for which reason it has fallen into contempt.’ The surgery of Albucasis became firmly grafted on Europe after the time of Guy de Chauliac (d.1368).
On Surgery and Instruments
Abu Bakr ibn Tufayl summoned me one day and told me that he had heard the Commander of the Faithful complaining about the disjointedness of Aristotle‘s mode of expression — or that of the translators — and the resultant obscurity of his intentions. He said that if someone took on these books who could summarize them and clarify their aims after first thoroughly understanding them himself, people would have an easier time comprehending them. “If you have the energy, ” Ibn Tufayl told me, “you do it. I’m confident you can, because I know what a good mind and devoted character you have, and how dedicated you are to the art. You understand that only my great age, the cares of my office — and my commitment to another task that I think even more vital — keep me from doing it myself. “—
And in his days [Yaqub al-Mansur], Abu al-Walid Ibn Rushd faced his severe ordeal and there were two causes for this; one is known and the other is secret. The secret cause, which was the major reason, is that Abu al-Walid [Averroes] —may God have mercy on his soul— when summarizing, commenting and expending upon Aristotle’s book “History of Animals” wrote: “And I saw the Giraffe at the garden of the king of the Berbers”.
And that is the same way he would mention another king of some other people or land, as it is frequently done by writers, but he omitted that those working for the service of the king should glorify him and observe the usual protocol. This was why they held a grudge against him [Averroes] but initially, they did not show it and in reality, Abu al-Walid wrote that inadvertently…Then a number of his enemies in Cordoba, who were jealous of him and were competing with him both in knowledge and nobility, went to Yaqub al-Mansur with excerpts of Abu Walid’s work on some old philosophers which were in his own handwriting. They took one phrase out of context that said: “and it was shown that Venus is one of the Gods” and presented it to the king who then summoned the chiefs and noblemen of Córdoba and said to Abu al-Walid in front of them “Is this your handwriting?”. Abu al-Walid then denied and the king said “May God curse the one who wrote this” and ordered that Abu al-Walid be exiled and all the philosophy books to be gathered and burned…And I saw, when I was in Fes, these books being carried on horses in great quantities and burned—Abdelwahid al-Marrakushi, “The Pleasant Book in Summarizing the History of the Maghreb”, (1224)
Tables of Toledo
1-“Al Amal bi Assahifa Az-Zijia”;
3-“Al Madkhal fi Ilm Annoujoum”;
4-“Rissalat fi Tarikat Istikhdam as-Safiha al-Moushtarakah li Jamiâ al-ouroud”;