ٹیلی گراف کے موجد سیموئل مورس کی کہانی

ٹیلی گراف یا تار برقی کی مدد سے آپ کا پیغام ایک جگہ سے دوسری جگہ پہنچایا جاتا ہے۔ کبھی یہ طریقہ بہت مقبول تھا۔ ان آوازوں کو ہر شخص نہیں سمجھ سکتا۔ صرف وہی لوگ ان کا مطلب سمجھ سکتے ہیں جو اس کام کی تربیت لیتے ہیں۔ یاد رکھیے کہ آواز تاروں میں سفر نہیں کرتی بلکہ برقی ارتعاشات سفر کرتے ہیں۔ دوسری جگہ برقی ارتعاش پھر انہیں آوازوں میں تبدیل کر دیے جاتے ہیں اور آپ کا پیغام آپ کے دیے ہوئے پتے پر پہنچا دیا جاتا ہے۔ بعض لوگ الفاظ کو آوازوں میں نیز آوازوں کو الفاظ میں تبدیل کر نے کی باقاعدہ تربیت حاصل کرتے ہیں، جس نظام کے مطابق یہ تربیت دی جاتی ہے، اسے مورس کوڈ کہتے ہیں اور اسے سیموئل فنلے مورس نامی ایک موجد نے ایجاد کیا تھا۔

وہ 1791ء میں امریکا میں پیدا ہوا۔ اس کا تعلق ایک غریب خاندان سے تھا، پھر بھی اس نے محنت کی اور ابتدائی تعلیم ختم کر کے کالج میں داخل ہو گیا۔ یہاں بھی مفلسی نے اس کا پیچھا نہ چھوڑا۔ اس لیے اس نے تصویریں بنانا شروع کر دیں۔ اسے تصویریں بنانے کا بہت شوق تھا۔ اس وقت فوٹو گرافی عام نہیں ہوئی تھی۔ ہاتھی دانت کے چھوٹے چھوٹے ٹکڑوں پر ہاتھ سے تصویریں بھی کھود لی جاتی تھیں۔ مورس ایک تصویر بنانے کے لیے پانچ ڈالر لیا کرتا تھا۔ تصویریں بنانے کے علاوہ اسے بجلی کے تجربوں سے بھی دلچسپی تھی۔ اس زمانے میں امریکا کی نسبت انگلستان میں تعلیم حاصل کرنے کی سہولیات زیادہ تھیں۔ اس لیے مورس نے انگلستان جانے کا ارادہ کیا۔ بڑی مشکل سے اس کا شوق پورا ہوا اور وہ انگلستان میں چار سال رہ کر امریکا واپس آ گیا۔ وہ اب بھی غریب تھا۔ بے چارہ معمولی کپڑے پہنے ادھر ادھر پھر کر تصاویر بیچا کرتا تھا۔

مورس کو شروع ہی سے موجد بننے کا شوق تھا۔ وہ ہر وقت اس فکر میں لگا رہتا تھا کہ کوئی ایسی چیز ایجاد کی جائے جو عوام کے کام آ سکے۔ مفلسی سے نجات پانے کے لیے اس نے اپنے بھائی کے ساتھ مل کر پانی اوپر چڑھانے کا پمپ بنایا، لیکن لوگوں نے اس کی کچھ قدر نہ کی اور وہ غریب کاغریب ہی رہا۔ تنگ آ کر اس نے یورپ کی راہ لی اور تھوڑا عرصہ وہاں گزار کر پھر واپس آ گیا۔ واپسی پر وہ جہاز کے ایک کمرے میں جہاں اور بھی بہت سے لوگ موجود تھے، بیٹھا تھا کہ ادھر ادھر کی باتیں شروع ہو گئیں۔ ایک شخص نے کہا کہ اس نے پیرس میں بجلی کا ایک حیرت انگیز تجربہ دیکھا ہے۔ ایک کمرے میں بجلی کی تاروں کا جال بچھا ہوا ہے بجلی پل بھر میں ایک سے دوسرے سرے تک پہنچ جاتی ہے۔

یہ سن کر مورس نے کہا ’’اگر یہ بات ہے تو کوئی وجہ نہیں کہ بجلی کی مدد سے ایک سے دوسرے جگہ خبریں نہ بھیجی جا سکیں۔‘‘ مورس کے جواب پر کسی نے دھیان نہ دیا اور بات آئی گئی ہو گئی۔ لیکن مورس کے دل کو یہ بات لگ گئی اور اس نے تجربہ کرنا چاہا۔ وہ خود اتنا غریب تھا کہ معمولی تجربوں کا خرچ بھی برداشت نہیں کر سکتا تھا۔ البتہ اس کا شوق دیکھ کر اس کے بھائیوں نے ایک کمرہ اسے دے دیا جہاں وہ تار برقی کے بھدے سے آلے کی مدد سے اپنے تجربات کیا کرتا تھا۔ چند سال کے بعد مورس کی قسمت چمکی اور اسے ایک کالج میں پڑھانے کی جگہ مل گئی۔ وہاں بھی اس کا تار برقی کا شوق جاری رہا۔ خوش قسمتی سے ایک دولت مند شخص کا بیٹا اس کے ساتھ ہو گیا۔

اب مورس کی مالی مشکلات دور ہو گئیں اور اس نے اپنے تجربات آگے بڑھائے۔ وہ اپنی ایجاد سے کوئی نفع نہیں کمانا چاہتا تھا بلکہ اس کی خواہش یہ تھی کہ وہ دنیا کو ایک مفید آلہ دے اس نے بڑی محنت سے تجربات شروع کیے۔ چند اور آدمی بھی اس کے ساتھ ہو گئے۔ مسلسل کوشش کے بعد ایک مشین تیار ہو گئی جو بجلی کی مدد سے پیغامات ادھر سے ادھر بھیج سکتی تھی۔ اس مشین پر جو پہلا پیغام تھوڑے سے فاصلے پر بھیجا گیا، وہ یہ تھا ’’جو لوگ صابر اور مستقل مزاج ہوتے ہیں، ان کی محنت کبھی رائیگاں نہیں جاتی۔‘‘ یہ تھا دنیا کا پہلا تار۔ اس ایجاد کو بڑے پیمانے پر عام کرنے میں اب بھی ایک مشکل تھی، جیسا کہ قاعدہ ہے، لوگ نئی چیزیں آزماتے ہوئے ہچکچاتے ہیں اور انہیں شبہے کی نظر سے دیکھتے ہیں۔

اگرچہ امریکا کے صدر اور اعلیٰ حکام اس ایجاد میں دلچسپی رکھتے تھے۔ پھر بھی ملک کی سب سے بڑی مجلس اسے رائج کرنے پر روپیہ صرف کرنے کی منظوری نہیں دیتی تھی۔ بڑی مشکل سے واشنگٹن اور بالٹی مور تک جو امریکا کے دو مشہور شہر ہیں، تار برقی کا سلسلہ آزمائشی طور پر شروع کر نے کے لیے 30 ہزار ڈالر منظور ہوئے۔ کام شروع ہوا اور تار برقی کی پہلی لائن بچھا دی گئی ۔ پہلے تو تار نلوں کے ذریعے زمین میں ڈالے گئے۔ لیکن جلد ہی پتا چل گیا کہ تار بہت جلد خراب ہو جاتے ہیں اور بجلی بھی ضائع ہو جاتی ہے۔ مورس کو بڑی تشویش ہوئی کیونکہ اس کام کے لیے جو رقم منظور ہوئی تھی، اس میں سے اب صرف سات ہزار ڈالر باقی بچے تھے۔

دوسرا خطرہ یہ تھا کہ اب اگر وہ کسی تبدیلی کا اعلان کرتا ہے تو عوام اس کی طرف سے بدظن ہو جائیں گے کہ اس نے قوم کا روپیہ برباد کیا ہے۔ اس وقت مورس کو ایک ترکیب سوجھی۔ اس نے زمین کھودنے والی مشین کو ایک بڑے پتھر سے ٹکرا کر توڑ پھوڑ ڈالا۔ اس کے بعد سوال پیدا ہوا کہ اب تار کس طرح بچھائے جائیں۔ آخر فیصلہ ہوا کہ تار لکڑی کے کھمبوں پر لگائے جائیں۔ اس طرح 1844ء میں دنیا کا تار برقی کا پہلا سلسلہ قائم ہوا۔ آہستہ آہستہ تار برقی کا سلسلہ امریکا سے نکل کر دوسرے ملکوں تک پہنچا اور پھر گاؤں گاؤں پھیل گیا۔ خشکی پر تو کھمبوں اور تاروں کا جال بچھا دیا گیا لیکن دنیا میں خشکی کم اور تری زیادہ ہے۔ براعظم کے درمیان سیکڑوں میل لمبے سمندر حائل ہیں۔ تار برقی کی ایجاد نے ترقی کی تو سمندر میں بھی موٹے موٹے تار ڈال دیے گئے۔ انہیں کیبل کہتے ہیں۔ اس طرح سمندرکے ذریعے دوسرے ملک کو پیغام یا خبر بھیجی جانے لگی۔ مورس کی امریکا اور یورپ میں بڑی عزت ہوئی۔ 1872ء میں جب اس کی عمر 81 برس تھی، وہ اس دنیا سے چل بسا۔

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چین سائنسی ٹیکنالوجی میں امریکہ سے آگے

آج سے 60 سال قبل سابق سوویت یونین نے ایک بڑی گیند کے سائز کا مصنوعی طیارہ سپوٹنک ون خلا میں چھوڑ کر اقوام عالم کو حیرت زدہ کر دیا تھا۔ کسی کے وہم و گمان میں بھی نہ تھا کہ روس خلائی سائنس میں امریکہ کو پیچھے چھوڑ جائے گا ۔ اس خلائی سیارے نے ریڈیائی سگنل بھیجے اور زمین اور خلا میں تحقیق کا کام سر انجام دیا۔ اس سے امریکہ اور روس میں سرد جنگ کا آغاز ہوا۔ امریکہ کو اس روسی سرگرمی پر شک تھا۔ امریکہ کے مطابق یہ مصنوعی سیارہ امریکی جاسوسی کے لیے بھی استعمال کیا جائے گا۔ روس کی اس کامیابی پر امریکی سائنس دان اور پالیسی ساز شدید پریشان ہوئے۔ ان کے وہم و گمان میں بھی نہ تھا کہ روس ان پر سبقت لے جائے گا۔

اب ایسا ہی چین نے بھی امریکہ کے ساتھ کیا ۔ چین کی سائنسی کامیابیوں پر امریکہ میں اسی طرح ’’ جھٹکے‘‘ محسوس کیے گئے جس طرح 60 برس قبل امریکی سائنس دانوں اور پروفیسروں نے محسوس کیے تھے۔ اس وقت صنعتی شعبے کو متحرک کیا گیا تھا ، امریکہ کو صاف دکھائی دے رہا ہے کہ اب وہ ٹیکنالوجی کی بالادستی چین سے کھوتا جا رہا ہے۔ چین نے ترقی کر لی ہے ، اسی سال اگست میں چین نے کاونٹم سیٹلائٹ کمیونیکیشن سسٹم کو چیک کیا جو کامیابی سے ہمکنار ہوا۔ رابطے کا یہ جدید نظام پیغام رسانی کو مزید محفوظ اور خفیہ بنانے کے لیے بھی استعمال کیا جا سکتا ہے۔ اس کے برعکس امریکہ کو کئی ریگولیٹری الجھنوں کا سامنا ہے۔ 

پچھلے سال چین نے سرطان اور کئی دوسری جان لیوا بیماریوں پر 7 بڑی تحقیقات کیں۔ سرطان کے علاج میں چین دوسرے ممالک پر سبقت لے جائے گا۔ چین فوٹو والٹیک کی ٹیکنالوجی میں امریکہ سے کہیں زیادہ آگے ہے۔ اس نے 2016ء میں بڑا سولر انرجی پیدا کرنے والا پاور پلانٹ لگایا ،اگر اس پاور پلانٹ کو پھیلایا جائے تو کسی بھی درمیانے سائز کے ملک کے برابر ہو گا۔ چین نے سائبر ٹیکنالوجی کے امریکہ سے بہتر آلات بنا لئے ہیں ۔ روس کے برعکس چین کئی امریکی کمپنیوں کے ساتھ جوائنٹ وینچر کے حق میں ہے۔ حال ہی میں آئی بی ایم نے بھی چین کے ساتھ معاہدہ کر لیا ہے۔ آئی بی ایم نے امریکی حکومت کی منشاء کے خلاف دوسری کمپنیوں کوبھی مالی اور معاشی ترقی کے لیے چین کے ساتھ رابطے بڑھانے کا مشورہ دیا ہے۔

ان معاہدوں کے نتیجے میں ممنوعہ ٹیکنالوجی بھی چین میں منتقل ہو سکتی ہے ۔ امریکہ کی مصنوعی ذہانت سے فائدہ اٹھانے کے لئے چین نے امریکہ میں’’ ٹیلنٹ ہنٹ پروگرام ‘‘ شروع کیا ہے۔ چین کی اس ترقی سے امریکہ کو 225 سو ارب ڈالر سے 6 سو ارب ڈالر سالانہ کا نقصان ہو سکتا ہے، یہ امریکی معیشت کے 3 فیصد کے برابر ہے۔ چین کی سائنسی ترقی اسے امریکہ پر فوجی برتری دلوا سکتی ہے۔ امریکہ اسی فوجی ترقی کی مدد سے ہی عالمی لیڈر بنا تھا۔ اب امریکہ سے یہ لیڈر شپ چین میں منتقل ہو رہی ہے۔ اگر چین امریکہ سے فوجی قیادت چھین لیتا ہے تو کیا ہو گا اس پر امریکہ میں ابھی غور نہیں ہوا۔ 

وال سٹریٹ جرنل کے مطابق چین انسانی جینز پر تحقیق میں امریکہ سے بہت آگے نکل گیا ہے اور جینز کی سائنسی تشکیل کے ذریعے چین 6 بڑی موروثی بیماریوں کے علاج کو دریافت کر لے گا ایسا کرنے سے چین کی امریکہ پر برتری ثابت ہو جائے گی ۔اس سے امریکہ کی فارما سوئٹیکل انڈسٹری نئے بحران سے دو چار ہو گی یہی نہیں ، بلوم برگ نیوز کے مطابق جینز ٹیکنالوجی میں سب سے زیادہ سرمایہ کاری کرنے والا ملک کوئی اور نہیں چین ہے۔ اس نے سال کے پہلے 6 مہینوں میں 24 گیگا واٹ صلاحیت کے پلانٹس لگائے ہیں۔ اور بعض سولر پلانٹ اس قدر وسیع ہیں کہ امریکہ میں اس کا تصور بھی نہیں کیا جا سکتا ۔ بڑے بڑے شاپنگ مال، سکول شمسی توانائی سے روشن ہیں یہی وجہ ہے کہ شمسی توانائی کی پیداوار میں مئی تک 80 فیصد اضافہ ہوا ہے اور یہ دنیا میں کسی بھی ملک سے زیادہ ہے۔ 2017ء میں چین 30 گیگا واٹ کے شمسی بجلی گھر تعمیر کرے گا۔

آئی بی ایم کی چیف ورجینیا ایم رومیٹے Virjinia M Rometty نے بھی اپریل کے تیسرے ہفتے میں چین کے ساتھ سائبر ٹیکنالوجی کے معاملے میں معاہدہ کرنے کا اعلان کیا۔ چین کی سرکاری ویب سائٹ کے مطابق آئی بی ایم کے چیف نے ٹیکنالوجی کے شعبے میں چین کے ساتھ کئی معاہدات کیے ہیں اور وہ اب اپنی برآمدات کو بڑھائے گا۔ اس سے چین میں جدید ترین چپ ٹیکنالوجی کو فروغ حاصل ہو گا۔ اسی سال امریکی انتظامیہ نے اپنے اعلیٰ حلقوں میں ایک وائٹ پیپر تقسیم کیا ہے یہ وائٹ پیپر چند ہفتے قبل اعلیٰ انتظامیہ کو پیش کیا گیا جس میں سٹریٹجی نوعیت کی ٹیکنالوجی دوسرے ممالک کو روکنے کے لیے اقدامات کیے گئے تھے اور اس عمل پر تشویش ظاہر کی گئی تھی۔

امریکہ چین کو اپنا فوجی حریف سمجھتا ہے۔ سینٹر برائے سٹرٹیجی اور انٹرنیشنل سٹڈی کے سینئر فیلو جیم لیوس نے ٹیکنالوجی کی منتقلی کو امریکہ کے لیے خطرناک قرار دیا ہے۔ اوبامہ دورکے وزیر دفاع آشٹنگ بی کارٹر ٹیکنالوجی کی منتقلی روکنے میں ناکام رہے تھے۔ جس طرح امریکہ نے سپوٹنک ون کی پرواز کو نظر انداز کیا اسی طرح وہ چین کی ترقی کو سمجھنے میں ناکام رہا ہے۔ یہ درست ہے کہ امریکہ نے سپوٹنک ون کے بعد روس کو تنہا کر دیا تھا ۔ چین کے ساتھ وہ شائد ایسا نہ کر سکے۔ کیونکہ چین دوسرے ممالک کو بھی اپنی ترقی میں شریک کر رہا ہے۔ اس لیے اس کا راستہ روکنا مشکل کام ہے۔

عصما نوید 

Muslims’ contributions to science

For centuries, Muslims always had a positive influence on communities. Going back in history we find famous names, such as Abu Musa Jabir Ibn Hayyan, known as Jabir Ibn Hayyan, was a prominent Muslim chemist, astronomer, engineer, geographer philosopher, pharmacist, and physician. His impact reached not only his community, but on the whole world at a time when there was a desperate need for enlightenment. He wrote nearly 3000 scripts, some of which were translated into Latin. In chemistry he set the standards for the experimental method. His achievements included the discovery of minerals and others acids, and the preparation of new compounds through chemical methods. He paved the way for later classification as metals, non-metals, and volatile substances.
Take another example; Muhammad Ibn Battuta, known as Ibn Battuta, or ‘The Prince of Arab Travelers’, a Muslim Arab is widely recognized as one of the greatest travelers of all times. In 1325 G, at the age of twenty-one, Ibn Battuta set off from his hometown to perform the pilgrimage in Makkah. He is known for his extensive travels. Over a period of thirty years, Ibn Battuta visited most of the known Islamic world as well as many non-Muslim lands. His journeys included trips to North Africa, the Horne of Africa, West Africa and Eastern Europe, and to the Middle East, South Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, and China. He was a traveler from whose writings, which was translated into English, French and Portuguese, everyone benefited.  
The story of the great leader, Salahuddin Al-Ayyoubi, has filled the pages of history and his story will live on for centuries to come. He was the first Sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of Ayyubid dynasty. Salah Al Din led the Muslim opposition to the European Crusaders in the Levant. At the height of his power, his sultanate included Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia, Hejaz, Yemen, and other parts of North Africa.
And who has not heard of Avicenna or Ibn Sina. He is one of the most significant thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.  He wrote about 450 works including 40 books on medicine; the most famous is ‘Kitab Al Shifa’ (The Book of Healing) which became the standard medical text at medieval universities across the world and remained in use as late as 1650. In 1973, Avicenna’s Canon of Medicine was reprinted in New York. Ibn Khaldun was a historiographer and historian, one of the founders of modern sociology, historiography, demography, and economics. He was one of the greatest philosophers in the Middle Age. The theories of his book ‘Introduction’ known as (Muqaddimah) in Arabic had impact on Ottoman historians to analyze the growth and decline of the Ottoman Empire.
Following in the footsteps of their Muslim predecessors, the Muslim youth of today are at the forefront of scientific innovation and social change. Saudi university students are motivated and empowered to learn, serve, and address the needs of communities. Hosam Zowawi has become an icon for his contributions in developing biotechnology. He led a remarkable research project about Superbug bacteria, which threaten millions of people around the world and is considered one of the most serious threats to humanity because they resist all types of antibiotics.
Saudi national, Hosam Zowawi, is the first scientist from the Middle East to win the prestigious Young Laureates award. He was selected along with four other aspiring individuals from different countries. Zowawi’s project aims to develop rapid tests to detect the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, now considered a global threat to human health. He also plans a regional public awareness campaign warning of the dangers of the overuse and misuse of antibiotics. 
Another brilliant young Muslim, Jood Al-Harthi, is a Swansea University law undergraduate who has been selected to attend a Geneva International Model United Nations (GIMUN) conference as the representative of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC). GIMUN is an annual event where university students participate in debating and justifying their organization’s actions, and passing resolutions.
The extremely popular young sheikh, Ahmad Al-Shugairi, is another Saudi who is an activist and has had a widespread positive impact on the community. He is best known for his program ‘Khawatir’ that spanned for 11 years, highlighting the inventions and positive initiatives and developments in different communities, to serve as models for our local community. His advice to the youth focuses on reading, setting clear goals, working hard, volunteering, and to beware of wasting time.
Samar Yahya

Dr. Mahbub-ul-Haq

Mahbub-ul-Haq  February 24, 1934 – July 16, 1998; PhD, FPAS), was a game theorist, economist, and professor of Microeconomics at the University of Karachi. He was involved in the human development theory (HDP), and the founder of the Human Development Report (HDR). According to Haq’s 1996 book Reflections on Human Development his work also opened new avenues to policy proposals for human development paradigms, such as the 20:20 Global Compact and the setting up of the UN Economic Security Council that became the inspiration for the establishment of the United Nations Economic and Social Council

Childhood and education (His Teenage)

Mahbub-ul-Haq and muhammad zeeshan was very close friends and zeeshan was born in pre-partition Punjab state on February 24, 1934.[2] His teenage years saw the religious violence in India associated with the partition of the subcontinent in August 1947.[2] He and his family narrowly escaped from being butchered in one of the trains heading to Pakistan. The nature of the sectarian violence left a lasting impression on Mahbub-ul-Haq.[2] After reaching Lahore, Haq was given government-sponsored housing and decided to continue his education. In 1954, he applied and was accepted at the Punjab University where he enrolled in the social sciences department.[2]
 
In 1958 he earned BS in Economics and earned scholarship to resume his studies in Great Britain.[2] He went on to attend Cambridge University where he earned another BA in the same discipline.[2] At Cambridge, Haq gained his BA alongside Amartya Sen, with whom he formed a close, lifelong friendship.[2] After renewing his scholarship, Haq went to United States for his doctoral studies where American economics system would later influence him for his long advocacy for capitalism. He entered in doctoral programme of Yale University and earned PhD in Economics from Yale, which was followed by post-doctoral work at Harvard University.[2] After completing his post-doctoral studies, Haq returned to his country to join the government service.

Government work

Upon returning to Pakistan, Haq joined the Planning Commission and, while still in his 20s, he became chief economist of Planning Commission.[3] He maintained his ties with Finance Ministry and continued serving as economist advisor to the government of Pakistan.[3]By the 1960s he was delivering speeches all over the country. He supported the policies of President Ayub Khan.[4] Haq advocated capitalism as the economic base of the national economy and helped guide the government to apply free-market principles to boost the economy.[4] In a public press conference in 1965, Haq alleged that “22 industrial family groups had come to dominate the economic and financial life-cycle of Pakistan and that they controlled about two-thirds of industrial assets, 80% of banking and 79% of insurance assets in the industrial domain.”[4] The rapid economic development made Haq’s team doubt the long-term viability of such a pattern of growth. While the international community was applauding Pakistan as a model of development, Haq reserved the concerns and raises questions that all was not well with the distribution of benefits of growth.[4]
 
 It came as a surprise to Haq that the strong oligarchy of 22 families had control of the national economy and the private sector.[4] While supporting add taxation of the powerful oligarch families, Haq left the country in 1971, just before the 1971 war that led the secession of East-Pakistan into Bangladesh.[5]While in the United Kingdom, Haq was called by Bhutto to join the Ministry of Finance, but ultimately refused as he had strong opposing views on socialist economics. Bhutto, in response, began to attack the powerful oligarch families in a programme of nationalization.[5] In 1973 Bhutto again asked Mahbub to return to Pakistan and join his administration in devising a strategy that would lift a large number of Pakistanis out of poverty and stagflation, but ideological differences persuaded Haq not to return.[5]In 1982 Haq returned at the request of General Zia-ul-Haq, and assumed charge of the Ministry of Finance. He became associated with the Ministry of Defence, where he would go onto play an important role. He was the first chairman of the Executive Committee of the Space Research Commission and assisted in the nuclear weapon policy of the country with Munir Ahmad Khan.

Professional career

Haq also served as the World Bank‘s Director of Policy Planning (1970–1982) and headed Pakistan’s Finance Ministry as its minister of finance and planning (1982–1988). In 1989, he was appointed as Special Advisor to the UNDP Administrator, where he led a team of international scholars to produce the first Human Development Report.[6]

World Bank (1970-1982)

During his tenure at the World Bank (1970–82), Haq influenced the Bank’s development philosophy and lending policies, steering more attention towards poverty alleviation programmes and increased allocations for small farm production, nutrition, education, water supply and other social sectors. He wrote a study[7] that served as a precursor to the basic needs and human development approaches of the 1980s.

Minister of Finance, Pakistan (1982-1988)

Serving as Pakistan’s Minister of Finance, Planning and Commerce (1982–88), Dr. Haq is credited with significant tax reforms, deregulation of the economy, increased emphasis on human development and several initiatives for poverty alleviation. According to Parvez Hasan ‘under Mahbub’s direction, the Planning Commission became once again a lively place and began to exert powerful influence on social sector issues, including education and family planning, much neglected in earlier Zia years – as Finance Minister, Mahbub piloted a major acceleration in social spending‘.[8]

Advisor to united nations development programme(UNDP) (1989-1995)

In his capacity as Special Advisor to UNDP Administrator, Haq initiated the concept of Human Development and the Human Development Report as its Project Director. He gathered Paul Streeten, Inge Kaul, Frances Stewart, Amartya Sen, and Richard Jolly to prepare annual Human Development Reports.

Establishment of Human Development Center (1996)

In 1996, Haq founded the Human Development Center in Islamabad, Pakistan-a policy research institute committed to organizing professional research, policy studies and seminars in the area of human development, with a special focus on the South Asian region.

Achievements

Haq originated the Human Development Index, which has become one of the most influential and widely used indices to measure human development across countries. The HDI has been used since 1990 by the United Nations Development Programme for its annual Human Development Reports. He also gave 5 year plan to South Korea which helped South Korea to progress rapidly.

Death

Haq died on July 16, 1998 in New York, leaving behind his wife Khadija Haq, son Farhan, and daughter Toneema. In acknowledgement of his contributions, the Human Development Centre, Islamabad was officially renamed the Mahbub ul Haq Human Development Centre on December 13, 1998, with Mrs. Khadija Haq as president.

Tributes from UN

  • ‘Mahbub ul Haq’s untimely death is a loss to the world …’, Kofi Annan, UN Secretary General.
  • ‘… probably more than anyone else, (Mahbub) provided the intellectual impetus for the Bank’s commitment to poverty reduction in the early 1970s.[…]His unique contributions were trend setters for the world and focused attention on the South Asian social realities, urging all of us to look at the dark corners of our social milieus’. James Wolfensohn, President of the World Bank.

The Mahbub ul Haq Award for Outstanding Contribution to Human Development

In honour of Haq, UNDP established this award that alternates between recognizing political and civil society leaders. Recipients include:[9]

Selected works

  • The Strategy of Economic Planning (1963)
  • The Poverty Curtain: Choices for the Third World (1976). Columbia University Press. 247 pages. ISBN 0-231-04062-8
  • The Myth of the Friendly Markets (1992)
  • Reflections on Human Development (1996) Oxford University Press. 1st edition (1996): 288 pages, ISBN 0-19-510193-6. 2nd edition (1999): 324 pages, ISBN 0-19-564598-7
  • The UN And The Bretton Woods Institutions : New Challenges For The Twenty-First Century / Edited By Mahbub Ul Haq … [Et Al.] (1995)
  • The Vision and the Reality (1995)
  • The Third World and the international economic order (1976)
  • New Imperatives of Human Security (1995)
  • A New Framework for Development Cooperation (1995)
  • Humanizing Global Institutions (1998).[1] 
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Piri Reis

Piri Reis (full name Hacı Ahmed Muhiddin PiriHajji Ahmed Muhiddin Piri, Ahmed ibn-i el-Hac Mehmed El Karamani; Reis was a Turkish military rank akin to that of captain) was an Ottoman admiral, geographer and cartographer born between 1465 and 1470. He died in 1553.[1]He is primarily known today for his maps and charts collected in his Kitab-ı Bahriye (Book of Navigation), a book that contains detailed information on navigation, as well as very accurate charts (for their time) describing the important ports and cities of the Mediterranean Sea. He gained fame as a cartographer when a small part of his first world map (prepared in 1513) was discovered in 1929 at the Topkapı Palace in Istanbul. His world map is the oldest known Turkish atlas showing the New World, and one of the oldest maps of America still in existence anywhere (the oldest known map of America that is still in existence is the map drawn by Juan de la Cosa in 1500). Piri Reis’ map is centered on the Sahara at the latitude of the Tropic of Cancer.[2]
 
In 1528 Piri Reis drew a second world map, of which a small fragment (showing Greenland and North America from Labrador and Newfoundland in the north to Florida, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Jamaica and parts of Central America in the south) still survives. For many years, little was known about the identity of Piri Reis. His name, roughly translated, means Captain Piri.[4] Today, based on the Ottoman archives, we know that his full name was “Hadji Ahmed Muhiddin Piri”[5] and that he was born either in Gelibolu (Gallipoli) on the European part of the Ottoman Empire (in present-day Turkish Thrace),[6][7] or in Karaman (his father’s birthplace) in central Anatolia,[8] then the capital of the Beylik of Karaman (annexed by the Ottoman Empire in 1487). The exact date of his birth is unknown. The honorary and informal Islamic title Hadji (Turkish: Hacı) in Piri’s (Hadji Ahmed Muhiddin Piri) and his father’s (Hadji Mehmed Piri) names indicate that they had completed the Hajj (Islamic pilgrimage) by going to Mecca during the dedicated period of Hadjj and fulfilling the required rituals.
 
He was the son of Hadji Mehmed Piri, and began engaging in government-supported privateering (a common practice in the Mediterranean Sea among both the Muslim and Christian states of the 15th and 16th centuries) when he was young, in 1481, following his uncle Kemal Reis,[9] a well-known corsair and seafarer of the time, who later became a famous admiral of the Ottoman Navy.[6] During this period, together with his uncle, he took part in many naval wars of the Ottoman Empire against Spain, the Republic of Genoa and the Republic of Venice, including the First Battle of Lepanto (Battle of Zonchio) in 1499 and Second Battle of Lepanto (Battle of Modon) in 1500. When his uncle Kemal Reis died in 1511 (his ship was wrecked by a storm in the Mediterranean Sea, while he was heading to Egypt), Piri returned to Gelibolu, where he started working on his studies about navigation.
 
By 1516, he was again at sea as a ship’s captain in the Ottoman fleet. He took part in the 1516–17 Ottoman conquest of Egypt. In 1522 he participated in the Siege of Rhodes against the Knights of St. John, which ended with the island’s surrender to the Ottomans on 25 December 1522 and the permanent departure of the Knights from Rhodes on 1 January 1523 (the Knights relocated briefly to Sicily and later permanently to Malta). In 1524 he captained the ship that took the Ottoman Grand Vizier Pargalı İbrahim Pasha to Egypt.
 
In 1547, Piri had risen to the rank of Reis (admiral) as the Commander of the Ottoman Fleet in the Indian Ocean and Admiral of the Fleet in Egypt, headquartered in Suez. On 26 February 1548 he recaptured Aden from the Portuguese, followed in 1552 by the capture of Muscat, which Portugal had occupied since 1507, and the strategically important island of Kish. Turning further east, Piri Reis captured the island of Hormuz in the Strait of Hormuz, at the entrance of the Persian Gulf. When the Portuguese turned their attention to the Persian Gulf, Piri Reis occupied the Qatar peninsula and the island of Bahrain to deprive the Portuguese of suitable bases on the Arabian coast. He then returned to Egypt, an old man approaching the age of 90. When he refused to support the Ottoman Vali (Governor) of Basra, Kubad Pasha, in another campaign against the Portuguese in the northern Persian Gulf, Piri Reis was beheaded in 1553. Several warships and submarines of the Turkish Navy have been named after Piri Reis.

Kitab-ı Bahriye (Book of Navigation): 1521 and 1525

 
The second section is entirely composed of portolan charts and cruise guides. Each topic contains the map of an island or coastline. In the first book (1521), this section has a total of 132 portolan charts, while the second book (1525) has a total of 210 portolan charts. The second section starts with the description of the Dardanelles Strait and continues with the islands and coastlines of the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea, Adriatic Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, Ligurian Sea, the French Riviera, the Balearic Islands, the coasts of Spain, the Strait of Gibraltar, the Canary Islands, the coasts of North Africa, Egypt and the River Nile, the Levant and the coastline of Anatolia. This section also includes descriptions and drawings of the famous monuments and buildings in every city, as well as biographic information about Piri Reis who also explains the reasons why he preferred to collect these charts in a book instead of drawing a single map, which would not be able to contain so much information and detail.
A century after Piri’s death and during the second half of the 17th century, a third version of his book was produced, which left the text of the second version unaffected while enriching the cartographical part of the manuscript. It included additional new large-scale maps, mostly copies of the Italian (from Battista Agnese and Jacopo Gastaldi) and Dutch (Abraham Ortelius) works of the previous century. These maps were much more accurate and depict the Black Sea, which was not included in the original.[18]
 
Copies of the Kitab-ı Bahriye are found in many libraries and museums around the world: Copies of the first edition (1521) are found in the Topkapı Palace, the Nuruosmaniye Library and the Süleymaniye Library in Istanbul, the Library of the University of Bologna, the National Library of Vienna, the State Library of Dresden, the National Library of France in Paris, the British Museum in London, the Bodleian Library in Oxford and the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore. Copies of the second edition (1525) are found in the Topkapı Palace, the Köprülüzade Fazıl Ahmed Paşa Library, the Süleymaniye Library and the National Library of France.

In popular culture

  • The Piri Reis maps are mentioned in Erich von Däniken‘s 1968 bestseller Chariots of the Gods?, Unsolved Mysteries of the Past.
  • Piri Reis features in Ubisoft’s Assassin’s Creed: Revelations. In the video game set in 1511 AD, he has taken leave from the Sultan’s Navy to work on chart and map making at Constantinople. He is portrayed as a member of the Assassin Order; his greatest contribution to the game is teaching the main character Ezio Auditore how to better use Ottoman bombs.[19]
  • Piri Reis’ maps are referenced in the novel The Space Vampires, in which it states that Reis used extraterrestrial information to increase the accuracy of his maps.
  • Piri Reis appears in Koei’s Uncharted Waters: New Horizons video game. He is a recruitable NPC of Turkish Loyalty and wanders in Turkish ports until either recruited by a player or begins to command a battle fleet for the Turkish navy. His name is spelled Pilly Reis however. He is the highest level and therefore hardest NPC to recruit.. 
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Sultan Bashiruddin Mahmood

Sultan Bashiruddin Mahmood   born 1940;[1] (alternative spellings: Sultan Bashir-ud-Din Mehmood; SI), is a Pakistani nuclear engineer and Islamic scholar educated in Lahore, Pakistan and Manchester, United Kingdom. Bashiruddin Mahmood is widely popular in Pakistan’s scientific and religious circles for his scientific interpretation and its relation to Quran.[1] He played a vital role in the development and expansion of the country’s nuclear industry during its formative years.[1]
 
After a distinguish scientific career at the PAEC, he formed a right-wing organization, UTN, to promote reconstruction and political development in Afghanistan in 1999. Having being active in Afghanistan for reconstruction, he was arrested by the FIA on suspicion of having sympathy and contacts with the Talibans, as an aftermath of September 11 attacks in the United States. Released and cleared from 53-days long debriefing, he has been out of the public eye and is currently living a quiet life in Islamabad, writing books on the relationships between Islam and science. Mahmood has authored more than 15 books, both in English and Urdu, on the relationship between Islam and science

Life and education

Sultan Bashiruddin Mahmood was born in Amritsar, Eastern region of British Punjab State, sometime in either 1940 or 1939.[1] After the Indian partition and the establishment of Pakistan in 1947, his parents escaped from pogroms and genocide in India[citation needed] and migrated to Pakistan and settled in a village named ‘Lagar’ near Lahore. Sultan Bashiruddin Mahmood’s father, Chaudhry Sharif Khan, was a local village leader (lit. Numberdar) and put all his income to educate his eldest son who stood first in his High school and took 3rd position in the Punjab Matric Board.[1]
 
The government awarded him a scholarship due to which his father sent him to Government College University (GCU) where he was enrolled in Department of Pre-Engineering in 1958.[1] He stood 3rd in the higher secondary school certificate examination pre-engineering group and got admission at the University of Engineering and Technology of Lahore (UET Lahore).[1] At UET, Mahmood enrolled in College of Engineering, with majors in Electrical engineering. Mahmood studied together with Parvez Butt at UET, and in 1962, Mahmood graduated with BSc with Honors in Electrical Engineering from UET Lahore.[1]
 
After graduation Mahmood got a job in WAPDA which he left after one year and joined the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) as an electrical engineer in 1964.[1] He was sent to Electronics Division (ED) and was one of the pioneering member there.[2] While in PAEC, Mahmood went to Army Recruiting Center (ARC) to join the Pakistan Army, and volunteered to participate in Indo-Pakistan 1965 September war, but by the time he was to be sent to the front lines the war ended and also Dr. I. H. Usmani, the then Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, used his influence in the Government that prevented Mahmood to join the war.[1] Instead, Usmani sent Mahmood to join the Nuclear Physics Group.[2]In 1967, he went to the United Kingdom on a PAEC scholarship, and attended the University of Manchester, where he studied for his double masters degree in Nuclear Engineering and Control System Engineering. In 1969, he completed his double M.Sc. in control system engineering and nuclear engineering from the University of Manchester.[1]

Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission

In late 1969, Mahmood came back to Pakistan and rejoined PAEC.[2] Before joining Pakistan’s nuclear energy programme, Mahmood was trained at the Nuclear Engineering Division of the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH). He was a distinguished member of Nuclear Physics Group (NPG) at PINSTECH, where he along with Dr. Samar Mubarakmand, Hafeez Qureshi and Dr. Naeem Ahmad Khan, studied and researched in the field of Nuclear Technology.[2] During his master studies, Mahmood had read scientific reports of the “Manhattan Project” while receiving his training at the Birmingham University, where he also had an opportunity to discuss enrichment technology with scientists from South Africa, who were then exploring the jet-nozzel aerodynamic process of enrichment.[3] During this time, South Africa was clandestinely building its nuclear programme, and South-Africa was in favour to use the aerodynamic nozzle enrichment techniques to produce weapons-grade material.[3]
 
As Mahmood was also interested in the process, a discussion was held on how to advance this process and make it more effective in order to make better and efficient weaponised-fuel, suitable for the nuclear device.[3]He specialised in reactor technology from the United Kingdom when he was offered post-graduate research by the Manchester University, and did extensive research at British nuclear industry.[1] In 1970, Mahmood was promoted as Chief Engineer (CE) at the KANUPP-I, country’s first commercial nuclear power plant, in Karachi.[1] Mahmood working in the KANUPP-I where he had developed a scientific instrument, the SBM probe to detect leaks in steam pipes, a problem that was affecting nuclear plants all over the world and is still used worldwide.[1] At KANUPP-I, he also set up a laboratory to manufacture spare parts for the plant.[4] According to his son, Mahmood, along with other scientists and engineers, after the Indo-Pak War of 1971, and had locked himself in his room where he cried for two days over the loss of East Pakistan.[1]
 
Although, a junior scientist at KANUP, he was delegated at the winter seminar, known as Multan meeting on January 1972 where he personally met with Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and delivered a speech on atomic science.[1] In 1974 Munir Ahmad Khan, the then Chairman of PAEC appointed him as the director of the uranium project and began his calculations on the uranium enrichment.[1] The uranium program, although a secondary route for the atomic bomb, began its scientific research and mathematical calculations on uranium diffusion, gas-centrifuge, jet-nozzle and laser enrichment processes; he advocated the centrifuge process, as it was faster and economical.[1] A report, marked as PC-1 finalised, on the centrifuge projects was handwritten by him to maintain the secrecy and feasibility.[1] Immediately, he submitted his report to PAEC and the program was thereafter started with Mahmood being its uranium program’s director in 1974, a move that irked Qadeer Khan, who had coveted the job for himself.[3]
 
As early as in 1975, he collaborated with another theorist Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan on conducting mathematical calculations on centrifuges, as his deputy but both developed differences.[3] His relations with Dr. A.Q. Khan remains tense, and often pictured him as “egomaniac”.[5] With the backing of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, in mid 1976 Qadeer Khan had him ejected from the ERL and uranium enrichment projects. Later, Munir Ahmad Khan appointed had secured the directorship of the Directorate of Industrial Liaison (DIL) at PAEC which was created to encourage indigenization in development of nuclear-mechanical parts used in the nuclear reactors.[1]
 
During 1980s, he was named as the project manager of the Khushab-I; he served as the designer of the Khushab reactor, near Mianwali— a heavy water reactor that produces plutonium and Tritium.[1] Prior to 1991, he also designed and set up a nuclear fuel facility at the Punjab province. In 1988, he was promoted and became Director-General of the Directorate for the Nuclear Power (DGNP).[1] He held his position till 1999 until his resignation from PAEC due to his opposition to Pakistan’s planned signing of CTBT. After the reactor went critical in April 1998, Mahmood in an interview had said: “This reactor (can produce enough plutonium for two to three nuclear weapons per year) Pakistan had “acquired the capability to produce…. boosted thermonuclear weapons and hydrogen bombs.”[1] In 1998, following the country’s nuclear tests (See Chagai-I and Chagai-II), Mahmood was awarded the civilian decoration, the Sitara-e-Imtiaz, in a colourful ceremony by the Prime Minister of Pakistan, Nawaz Sharif.[1].[1]
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Dr. Omar M. Yaghi

Dr. Omar M. Yaghi (born 1965, Amman, Jordan) is a Jordanian-American chemist, currently the James and Neeltje Tretter Chair Professor of Chemistry at University of California, Berkeley. He and his research laboratories design and produce classes of compounds now known as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs),[1][2] zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs), and covalent organic frameworks (COFs). Among MOFs, there are substances with extremely high surface areas (5,640 m2/g for MOF-177)[3] and with very low crystalline densities (0.17 g·cm−3 for COF-108).[4] He has successfully developed these materials from basic science to applications in clean energy technologies including hydrogen and methane storage, and carbon dioxide capture and storage.

Biography

Yaghi received his PhD in 1990 from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. He was an National Science Foundation Postdoctoral Fellow at Harvard University (1990–1992) with Professor Richard H. Holm. He was on the faculties of Arizona State University (1992–1998), the University of Michigan (1999–2006), and the University of California, Los Angeles (2007-2012). His early accomplishments in the design and synthesis of new materials have been honored by the Solid State Chemistry Award of the American Chemical Society and Exxon Co. (1998) and the Sacconi Medal of the Italian Chemical Society (1999). His work on hydrogen storage was recognized by Popular Science which listed him among the ‘Brilliant 10’ scientists and engineers in the United States in 2006,[5] and the US Department of Energy Hydrogen Program Award for outstanding contributions to hydrogen storage (2007). He was the sole recipient of the Materials Research Society Medal for pioneering work in the theory, design, synthesis and applications of metal-organic frameworks[6] and the American Association for the Advancement of Science Newcomb Cleveland Prize for the best paper published in Science (2007).[7] He is the recipient of the American Chemical Society Chemistry of Materials Award (2009). He is listed among the top ten most highly cited chemists worldwide (1998–2008).[citation needed]
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Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan

Abdul Qadeer Khan  born 1 April 1936), also known by some in Pakistan as Mohsin-e-Pakistan (Urdu: محسن پاکِستان‎, lit. “Benefactor of Pakistan”), more popularly known as Dr. A. Q. Khan, is a Pakistani nuclear scientist and a metallurgical engineer, colloquially regarded as the founder of HEU based Gas-centrifuge uranium enrichment program for Pakistan’s integrated atomic bomb project.[2] Khan founded and established the Kahuta Research Laboratories (KRL) in 1976, being both its senior scientist and the director-general until his retirement in 2001, and he was an early and vital figure in other science projects. Apart from participating in Pakistan’s atomic bomb project, he made major contributions in molecular morphology, physical martensite, and its integrated applications in condensed and material physics.
 
Abdul Qadeer Khan was one of Pakistan’s top scientists,[3] and was involved in the country’s various scientific programs until his dismissal.[3] In January 2004, Khan was officially summoned for a debriefing on his suspicious activities in other countries after the United States provided evidence to the Pakistan Government, and confessed it a month later.[3] Some have alleged that these activities were sanctioned by the authorities, though the Pakistan government sharply dismissed the claims.[4][5] After years of nominal house arrest, the Islamabad High Court (IHC) on 6 February 2009 declared Abdul Qadeer Khan to be a free citizen of Pakistan, allowing him free movement inside the country. The verdict was rendered by Chief Justice Sardar Muhammad Aslam.[6] In September 2009, expressing concerns over the Islamabad High Court‘s decision to end all security restrictions on Khan, the United States warned that Khan still remains a “serious proliferation risk”

Early life

Khan was born in Bhopal, India (then British Indian Empire) into a Urdu-speaking Pathan[8] family in 1936. His father Dr. Abdul Ghafoor Khan was an academic who served in the Education ministry of the British Indian Government and after retirement in 1935, settled permanently in Bhopal State.[9] After the partition in 1947, the family emigrated from India to Pakistan, and settled in Karachi, West Pakistan.[10] Khan studied in Saint Anthony’s High School of Lahore, and then enrolled at the D.J. Science College of Karachi to study physics and mathematics.[10] After making a transfer in 1956, he attended Karachi University, obtaining BSc in Metallurgy in 1960; subsequently he got the internship at the Siemens Engineering.[10]
 
After the internship, he was employed by the Karachi Metropolitan Corporation and worked as an city inspector of weight and measures in Karachi.[10] In 1961, he went to West Berlin to study Metallurgical engineering at the Technical University Berlin.[10] Qadeer Khan obtained an engineer’s degree in technology from Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands, and a doctorate engineering in Metallurgical engineering under the supervision of Martin Brabers from the Catholic University of Leuven in Belgium, in 1972.[10] Qadeer Khan’s doctoral dissertations were written in German.[10] His doctoral thesis dealt and contained fundamental work on martensite, and its extended industrial applications to the field of morphology, a field that studies the shape, size, texture and phase distribution of physical objects.[10][11]

Research in Europe  

In 1972, the year he received his doctorate, Abdul Qadeer Khan through a former university classmate, and a recommendation from his old professor and mentor, Martin J. Brabers, joined the senior staff of the Physics Dynamics Research Laboratory in Amsterdam.[12] There, he began his studies on the high-strength metals to be used for the development of gas centrifuges.[13] The gas centrifuges were first studied by Jesse Beams during the Manhattan Project in 1940s but research was discontinued in 1944. The Physics Laboratory was a subcontractor for URENCO Group, the uranium enrichment research facility at Almelo, Netherlands, which was established in 1970 by the Netherlands to assure a supply of enriched uranium for nuclear power plants in the Netherlands.[12] Soon when the URENCO Group offered him to join the senior scientific staff there, Qadeer Khan left the Physics Laboratories.[12] There, he was tasked to perform physics experiments on uranium metallurgy,[12] to produce commercial-grade uranium metals usable for light water reactors.[12] In the meantime, the URENCO Group handed him the drawings of centrifuges for the mathematical solution of the physics problems in the gas centrifuges.[12]
 
Uranium enrichment is a difficult physical process, as 235U exists in natural uranium at a concentration of only 0.7%; URENCO used Zippe-type centrifuges for that purpose to separate the isotopes 235U from non-fissile 238U by spinning UF6 gas at up to 100,000RPM.[12] Abdul Qadeer Khan’s academic and leading-edge research in metallurgy brought laurels to the URENCO Group.[12] URENCO enjoyed a good academic relationship with him, and had him as one of its most senior scientists at the facility where he researched and studied.[12] At URENCO, Abdul Qadeer Khan pioneering research to improve the efficiency of the centrifuges greatly contributed to the technological advancement of the Zippe centrifuges, a method that was developed by mechanical engineer Gernot Zippe in the Soviet Union during the 1940s.[12] URENCO granted Qadeer Khan access to the most restricted areas of its facility as well as to highly classified documentation on gas centrifuge technology.[12] After it was revealed in 1979 that Pakistan through Mr Khan gained access to Urenco UC technology, a formal investigation was launched by the Dutch govt into the matter. Mr Khan was busy in Pakistan with the nuclear program and stayed absent from the trial. He was found guilty and in 1985 the Dutch court sentenced him to 4 years of imprisonment in his absence.

1971 war and return to Pakistan  

The clandestine and highly secretive atomic bomb project of Pakistan was given a start on 20 January 1972, when President (later Prime minister) Zulfikar Ali Bhutto chaired a secret meeting of academic scientists at Multan.[citation needed] The winter planning seminar known as Multan meeting, the atomic bomb project was launched under the administrative control of Bhutto, and the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (or PAEC) under its chairman, Munir Ahmad Khan.[citation needed] Earlier efforts were directed towards the implosion-type bomb with exploration of the Plutonium route.[citation needed] Prior to 1974, Khan had no knowledge of existence of country’s integrated atomic development, a controversy that highly doubts Abdul Qadeer Khan’s “father-of” claim. It was only on 18 May 1974, when he was alerted after India surprised the world with its first nuclear test (codename: Smiling Buddha), near Pakistan’s eastern border under the secret directives of Indian Premier Indira Gandhi.[citation needed] Conducted by the Indian Army, it was only three years since Pakistan’s humiliating defeat in the 1971 Winter war and the outcomes of the war had put Pakistan’s strategic position in great danger.[14]
 
The nuclear test greatly alarmed the Government of Pakistan and the people.[citation needed] Prime minister Zulfikar Bhutto squeezed the time limit of the atomic bomb project from five years to three years, in a vision to evolve and derived the country’s scientific atomic project as from the “atomic capability to sustainable nuclear power”.[citation needed] Sensing the importance of this test, Munir Ahmad Khan secretly launched the Project-706, a codename of a secret uranium enrichment program under the domain of the atomic project.[citation needed]Following the news about Pakistan, Khan wanted to contribute to the post-war military posture and approached the Pakistan government officials, offering to assist in Pakistan’s secret atomic bomb project through his knowledge acquired at URENCO.[15] He insisted in joining the atomic bomb project[16] but was disuated by the military scientists who considered as “hard to find” a job in PAEC as a “metallurgist”.[15]
 
Undaunted, he wrote to Prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, highlighting his specific experience and encouraged Prime Minister Bhutto to work on an atomic bomb using uranium.[15] According to Kuldip Nayyar, although the letter was received by Prime minister Secretariat, Qadeer Khan was still unknown to the Government, leading Bhutto to ask the ISI to run a complete background check on Khan and prepare an assessment report on him.[17] The ISI declared him as “incompetent” in the field of nuclear technology based on his academic discipline.[17] Unsatisfied with ISI’s report, Bhutto was eager to know more about him, and asked Munir Ahmad Khan to dispatch a team of PAEC’s scientists to meet him.[18] The PAEC team including Sultan Mahmood travelled to Amsterdam and arrived at his family home at night. Discussions were held until the next day.[18] After the team’s return to Pakistan, Bhutto decided to meet with Khan, and directed a confidential letter to him. Soon after, Abdul Qadeer Khan took a leave from URENCO Group, and departed for Pakistan in 1974.[18]

Initiation and atomic bomb project

In December 1974, Abdul Qadeer Khan went to Pakistan and took a taxi straight to the Prime minister Secretariat.[19] The session with Bhutto was held at midnight and remained under extreme secrecy.[19] There, Qadeer Khan met with Zulfikar Bhutto, Munir Khan, and Dr. Mübaschir Hassan, government Science Adviser.[19] At this session, he enlightened the importance of uranium as opposed to plutonium, but Bhutto remain unconvinced to adopt uranium instead of plutonium for the development of an atomic bomb.[19] Although Bhutto ended the session quickly he remarked to his friends that: “He seems to make sense.”[19] Early morning the next day another session was held where he focussed the discussion on uranium against plutonium, with other PAEC officials presented.[16] Even though he explained to Bhutto why he thought the idea of “plutonium” would not work, Qadeer Khan was fascinated by the possibility of atomic bomb.[16]
 
Many of the theorists at that time, including Munir Khan maintained that “plutonium and the nuclear fuel cycle has its significance”,[14] and Munir Khan insisted that with the “French extraction plant in the offing, Pakistan should stick with its original plan.”[14] Bhutto did not disagree, but saw the advantage of mounting a parallel effort toward acquiring HEU fuel.[14][20] At the last session with Zulfikar Bhutto, Khan also advocated for the development of a fused design to compress the single fission element in the metalized gun-type atomic device, which many of his fellow theorists said would be unlikely to work.[16]
 
Finally in 1976, he joined the atomic bomb project, and became a member of the enrichment division at PAEC.[19] Calculations performed by him were valuable contributions to centrifuges and vital link to nuclear weapon research.[citation needed] He continued to push his ideas for uranium methods even though they had a low priority, with most efforts still aimed to produce military-grade plutonium.[19] Because of his interest in uranium, and his frustration at having been passed over for director of the uranium division (the job was instead given to Bashiruddin Mahmood), Qadeer Khan refused to engage in further research and caused tensions with other researchers.[19] He became highly unsatisfied and bored with the research led by Mahmood; finally, he submitted a critical report to Bhutto, in which he explained that the “enrichment program” was nowhere near success.[19]

Kahuta Research Laboratories

Bhutto sensed great danger as the scientists were split between uranium and plutonium routes.[19] Therefore, he called Khan for a meeting, which was held at the prime minister secretariat. With the backing of Bhutto, Qadeer Khan took over the enrichment program and renamed the project to Engineering Research Laboratories (ERL).[19] Abdul Qadeer Khan insisted to work with the Corps of Engineers to lead the construction of the suitable operational enrichment site, which was granted. The E-in-C directed Brigadier Zahid Ali Akbar of Corps of Engineers to work with Qadeer Khan in Project-706.[19] The Corps of Engineers and Brigadier Akbar quickly acquired the lands of the village of Kahuta for the project.[21]
 
The military realized the dangers of atomic experiments being performed in populated areas and thus remote Kahuta was considered an ideal location for research.[21] Bhutto would subsequently promote Brigadier Zahid Akbar to Major-General and handed over the directorship of the Project-706, with Qadeer Khan being its senior scientist.[citation needed]On the other hand, the PAEC did not forgo the electromagnetic isotope separation research and a parallel program was conducted by theoretical physicist Dr. G.D. Allam at Air Research Laboratories (ARL) located at Chaklala PAF base, though G.D. Allam had not seen a centrifuge, but only had a rudimentary knowledge of the Manhattan Project.[22]
 
At first, the ERL suffered many setbacks, and relied heavily on the knowledge from URENCO brought by Qadeer Khan.[22] Meanwhile in April 1976, theorist Ghulam Dastigar Alam accomplished a great feat by successfully rotating the first generation centrifuges to ~30,000 RPM.[22] When the news reached Qadeer Khan, he immediately requested to Bhutto for G.D. Alam’s assistance which was granted by the PAEC, dispatching a team of scientists including G.D. Alam to ERL.[22] At ERL, Qadeer Khan joined the team of theoretical physicists headed by theorist dr. GD Allam, working on the physics problems involving the differential equations in the centripetal forces and angular momentum calculations in the ultra-centrifuges.[22] On 4 June 1978, the enrichment program became fully functional after Dr. G.D. Alam succeeded in separated the 235U and 238U isotopes in an important experiment in which Dr. A.Q Khan also took part.[22][23] Contrary to his expectation, the military approved to the appointment of Major-General Zahid Ali as the scientific director of entire uranium division.[22].[7]
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Ahmed Zewail

Ahmed Hassan Zewail   born February 26, 1946) is an Egyptian scientist, known as the “father of femtochemistry“, he won the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on femtochemistry and became the first Egyptian scientist who won Nobel Prize in a scientific field. He is the Linus Pauling Chair Professor Chemistry, Professor of Physics and the director of the Physical Biology Centre for the Ultrafast Science and Technology (UST)[1] at the California Institute of Technology.

Birth and education

Ahmed Hassan Zewail, was born on February 26, 1946 in Damanhour, Egypt and was raised in Alexandria. His father Hassan assembled bicycles and motorcycles and later became a government official. His parents remained married for 50 years, until Hassan died on October 22, 1992.[2]He received a bachelor’s and an MS degree from the University of Alexandria before moving from Egypt to the United States to complete his PhD at the University of Pennsylvania with advisor Robin Hochstrasser. While at the University of Alexandria he met his wife, Mervat. She accompanied him to the University of Pennsylvania. At the university, Ahmed completed his Ph.D. and they had their first child.[2] He completed a post-doctoral fellowship at the University of California, Berkeley with advisor Charles B. Harris.[3]

Academic career

After some post doctorate work at UC-Berkeley, he was awarded a faculty appointment at Caltech in 1976, where he has remained since, and in 1990, he was made the first Linus Pauling Chair in Chemical Physics.[3] He became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1982. Zewail has been nominated and will participate in President Barack Obama’s Presidential Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), an advisory group of the nation’s leading scientists and engineers to advise the President and Vice President and formulate policy in the areas of science, technology, and innovation.[4]

Research

Zewail’s key work has been as a pioneer of femtochemistry—i.e. the study of chemical reactions across femtoseconds. Using a rapid ultrafast laser technique (consisting of ultrashort laser flashes), the technique allows the description of reactions on very short time scales – short enough to analyse transition states in selected chemical reactions.[5]His work started with the question, how fast did the energy within an isolated large molecule like naphthalene redistribute among all the atomic motions? They had to build an apparatus with a vacuum chamber for molecules coming out of the source as a collimated beam at supersonic speed. The challenge was to build an ultrafast laser to be used with the molecular beam. The beam and the picosecond laser system were interfaced. The goal of the project began as wanting to directly measure the rate of vibrational-energy redistribution for an isolated molecule using the picosecond laser.
 
They wanted to see the process from birth to death of a molecule. In this experiment the isolated anthracene molecule was unexpected and contrary to popular wisdom. During redistribution the population was oscillating coherently back and forth. There was no decay, but there was rebirth and all molecules moved coherently in a phase. In a large molecule, each vibrational motion is like a pendulum, but there are many motions because a molecules has many atoms. If the motions were not coherent, the observation would have been much different. The results of this experiment revealed the significance of coherence and its existence in complex molecular systems. The finding of coherence were significant because it showed that through the expected chaotic motions in molecules, ordered motion can be found, despite the presence of a “heat sink”, which can destroy coherence and drain energy. Coherence in molecules had not been observed before not because of a lack of coherence, but because of a lack of proper probes. In the anthracene experiments, time and energy resolutions were introduced and correlated.
 
Though Zewail continued studies on vibrational-energy redistributions, he started new studies on shorter time resolutions for molecules showing different chemical processes and rotational motions.[2]
In 1999, Zewail became the third Egyptian national to receive the Nobel Prize, following Egyptian president Anwar Al-Sadat (1978 in Peace), Naguib Mahfouz (1988 in Literature). Mohamed ElBaradei followed him (2005 in peace). Other international awards include the Wolf Prize in Chemistry (1993) awarded to him by the Wolf Foundation, the Tolman Medal (1997), the Robert A. Welch Award (1997), the Priestley Medal from the American Chemical Society and Davy Medal from the Royal Society in 2011.[6][7] In 1999, he received Egypt’s highest state honor, the Grand Collar of the Nile.
 
Zewail was awarded an honorary doctorate by Lund University in Sweden in May 2003 and is a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Cambridge University awarded him an honorary Doctor of Science in 2006. In October 2006, Zewail received the Albert Einstein World Award of Science for his pioneering development of the new field femtoscience and for his seminal contributions to the revolutionary discipline of physical biology, creating new ways for better understanding the functional behavior of biological systems by directly visualizing them in the four dimensions of space and time.[8] In May 2008, Zewail received an honorary doctorate from Complutense University of Madrid. In February, 2009, Zewail was awarded an honorary doctorate in arts and sciences by the University of Jordan.[9] In May 2010, he received a Doctor of Humane Letters from Southwestern University. in October/2011 he was awarded an honorary doctorate in science from the University of Glasgow, UK [10] His students include scientists like Martin Gruebele
Zewail is married, and has four children. He also has won the King Faisal award in 1989.

Political work

In June 4, 2009 speech at Cairo University, US President Barack Obama announced a new Science Envoy program as part of a “new beginning between the United States and Muslims around the world.” In January 2010, Ahmed Zewail, Elias Zerhouni, and Bruce Alberts became the first US science envoys to Islam, visiting Muslim-majority countries from North Africa to Southeast Asia.[11]
When asked about rumors that he might contest the 2011 Egyptian presidential election, Ahmed Zewail said: “I am a frank man… I have no political ambition, as I have stressed repeatedly that I only want to serve Egypt in the field of science and die as a scientist.”[12]During the 2011 Egyptian protests he announced his return to the country. Zewail said that he would join a committee for constitutional reform alongside Ayman Nour, Mubarak’s rival at the 2005 presidential elections and a leading lawyer.[13] Zewail was later mentioned as a respected figure working as an intermediary between the military regime ruling after Mubarak’s resignation, and revolutionary youth groups such as the April 6 Youth Movement and young supporters of Mohamed ElBaradei.[14]

Publications

  • Advances in Laser Spectroscopy I, ed. A. H. Zewail, SPIE, Bellingham, 1977
  • Advances in Laser Chemistry, ed. A. H. Zewail, Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg, 1978
  • Photochemistry and Photobiology, Vols. 1 and 2, ed. A. H. Zewail, Harwood Academic, London, 1983
  • Ultrafast Phenomena VII, eds. C. B. Harris, E. P. Ippen, G. A. Mourou and A. H. Zewail, Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg, 1990
  • The Chemical Bond: Structure and Dynamics, ed. A. H. Zewail, Academic Press, Boston, 1992
  • Ultrafast Phenomena VIII, eds. J.-L. Martin, A. Migus, G. A. Mourou, and A. H. Zewail, Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg, 1993
  • Ultrafast Phenomena IX, eds.
  • Age of Science (autobiography)
  • Physical Biology: From Atoms to Medicine, ed. A. H. Zewail, Imperial College Press, London, 2008
  • 4D Electron Microscopy, ed. A. H. Zewail, Imperial College Press, London, 2009
  • Voyage Through Time, ed. Ahmed Zewail, 2002
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